PRE-CONFERENCE WORKSHOPS - Tuesday 26th June 2012

A programme of  one-day Workshops will be held on Tuesday 26 June. Each workshop will run from 9.30 - 17.00. These workshops offer participants an opportunity to develop practical skills in the assessment and treatment of a range of problems.  Below is a description of each workshop. You can register using the application form included with this programme. The number of places are limited so early application is advised.

Workshop 1. Childhood Neglect and Abuse: Working with the Long-Term Consequences
  Helen Kennerley, Oxford Cogntive Therapy Centre, University of Oxford and Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust
   
Workshop 2 Narrative Exposure Therapy: An Evidence-Based Treatment Approach for Child and Adult Survivors of Multiple Trauma
  Martina Ruf, University of Konstanz, Germany and vivo (www.vivo.org), and Katy Robjant, Institute of Psychotrauma and vivo (www.vivo.org)
   
Workshop 3 Emotional Processing in the Context of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Implications for Persistent Physical Symptoms in General
  Trudie Chalder, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London
   
Workshop 4 Behavioural Activation for Depression: Theory, Principles, and Applications
Derek Hopko, University of Tennessee, USA
   
Workshop 5 An Overview of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for PTSD
  Patricia Resick, National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University, USA
   
Workshop 6 Emotional Schema Therapy
  Robert L. Leahy, American Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Weill-Cornell Medical College, USA
   
Workshop 7 Pain-Related Fear in Chronic Pain: The Application of Exposure in Vivo
  Johan Vlaeyen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium and Maastricht University, Netherlands
   
Workshop 8 Cancelled
   
Workshop 9 Cancelled
   
Workshop 10 CBT for Psychosis: Basics and Beyond
  Alison Brabban, Tees, Esk & Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust and IAPT National Advisor for Severe Mental Illness
   
Workshop 11 Introduction to the Psychological Flexibility Model: An Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Workshop
  Kelly G. Wilson, University of Mississippi, USA
   
Workshop 12 Allied Forces? How to do Effective and Collaborative CBT with Military Veterans
  Martina Mueller, Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre
   
Workshop 13 A Cognitive Approach to the Treatment of OCD: Beyond Exposure and Response Prevention
  Adam Radomsky, Concordia University, Canada
   
Workshop 14 Update on CBT for Personality Disorder - CBTpd
  Kate Davidson, University of Glasgow and NHS GGC, and Sean Harper, NHS Lothian
   
Workshop 15 CBT for People with Cancer
  Stirling Moorey, Sout London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust  
   
Workshop 16 ‘A Picture is worth a Thousand Words’: Developing Imagery Techniques in Cognitive Therapy.
  Lusia Stopa, University of Southampton
   
Workshop 17 Why Behaving Well is not Beyond Belief: Identifying and Using Behavioural Change and Behavioural Experiments in Effective CBT for Anxiety and Related Problems
  Paul Salkovskis, University of Bath
   
Workshop 18 Body Image Disturbance in the Eating Disorders: Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches
Glenn Waller, Vincent Square Eating Disorders Service, CNWL NHS Foundation Trust, London, and Eating Disorders Section,
  Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London
   
Workshop 19 Cancelled

 

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Workshop 1

Childhood Neglect and Abuse: Working with the Long-Term Consequences
Helen Kennerley, Oxford Cogntive Therapy Centre, University of Oxford and Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust

An increasing body of research shows that developmental trauma can take a neuropsychological toll on children. This in turn colours their sense of self and their relationships with others. Sadly, for some this means an adulthood of enduring problems of self- esteem, mood management and difficulties in maintaining functional relationships.
Cognitive therapists can best help survivors of childhood trauma and neglect if they can fully formulate their difficulties, and an understanding of the neuro-psycho-social impact of developmental trauma will inform this process.
Therefore, this workshop will give an overview of the relevant long-term consequences of experiencing an abusive childhood and describe how this can translate into enduring difficulties for abused individuals and those close to them.
Rather than proposing a specific model for working with survivors of childhood abuse, this transdiagnostic workshop will consider how cognitive therapists can best use their existing knowledge and skills in CBT, but it will also highlight in what ways basic CBT might need to be augmented.

Learning Objectives:

  • To understand the implications of developmental trauma and neglect with regard to : neurological development, schema development and interpersonal development
  • To be able to use this understanding to develop idiosyncratic formulations
  • To use formulations to understand treatment implications and to guide intervention

Training Modalities:
Didactic methods followed by opportunities for group discussion
Role play
Presentations of clinical material

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
It is not uncommon to encounter survivors of developmental trauma in our work as CBT clinicians. There are many ways in which standard CBT interventions can ease the difficulties of these patients and one does not necessarily have to be a specialist in order to offer some respite. Even if referral on to a specialist service is indicated, there is much the non-specialist can do to make that transition as comfortable and safe as possible.
The work of those in specialist trauma services can be enhanced by a sound understanding of the neuro-psychological logical consequences of developmental trauma.

Helen Kennerley is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and founder member of the Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre (OCTC) where she is the Director of the course in Advanced Cognitive Therapy Studies (ACTS) which is run as an OCTC/ University of Oxford collaboration.
She is an experienced CBT clinician, trainer and supervisor who has specialised in working with survivors of trauma for over 20 years and she has written a popular self help book: ‘Overcoming Childhood Trauma’ which has been translated in to several languages.

References:
Lanius RA et al (2010) The impact of early life trauma on health and disease: the hidden epidemic  Cambridge University Press
Grey N (2009) A casebook of Cognitive Therapy for Traumatic Stress Reactions Routledge


Workshop 2

Narrative Exposure Therapy: An Evidence-Based Treatment Approach for Child and Adult Survivors of Multiple Trauma
Martina Ruf, University of Konstanz, Germany and vivo (www.vivo.org), and Katy Robjant, Institute of Psychotrauma and vivo (www.vivo.org)

Narrative Exposure Therapy was specifically developed for survivors of multiple trauma including war, torture, rape and sexual abuse. The theoretical background of NET builds on memory research and the treatment elements follow the principals of testimony therapy and cognitive-behavioural therapy.
During Narrative Exposure Therapy the client, with the assistance of the therapist, constructs a chronological narrative of his whole life with a focus on exposure to traumatic stress. Empathic understanding, active listening, congruency and unconditional positive regard are key components of the therapist’s behaviour. For traumatic experiences the therapist asks in detail for emotions, cognitions, sensory information and physiological reactions (<hot memory>) and records these meticulously, linking them to autobiographic context, namely time and place (<cold memory>). In this way, the narrative is developed in a supportive but rather directive guiding style by the therapist, in order to counter avoidance and to recover the full implicit information of the traumatic experience. At the end of treatment the client receives the written documentation. If requested by the client, this document may be used for human rights advocacy or, in the case of asylum seekers, for the asylum procedure. When working with children, illustrative and creative elements are employed to aid memory reorganisation.

The workshop will cover the following:

  • The rationale of (KID)NET
  • The (KID)NET treatment model
  • Practical demonstrations of (KID)NET

Learning Objectives:
The aim of this workshop will be:

  • To introduce the models of NET and KIDNET
  • To demonstrate the use of NET and KIDNET using case studies
  • To demonstrate techniques in the application of this approach
  • To discuss how NET and KIDNET can be combined with other approaches
  • To give an overview of the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of (KID)NET

Training Modalities:
Lectures & Demonstrations

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
(KID)NET is applicable for all kinds of trauma and the principals of (KID)NET can easily be integrated in a CBT treatment.

Dr. Martina Ruf / Phd; Clinical Psychologist is an Assistant Professor at the University of Konstanz and member of the non-governmental organisation vivo (www.vivo.org). She is working at the Centre of Excellence for Psychotraumatolgy at the University of Konstanz. Together with Maggie Schauer, Thomas Elbert and Frank Neuner she run one of the first studies on the feasibility and effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy for children. She also was part of different research projects on the effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy in adult trauma survivors. Beside her work in Germany she worked with the NGO vivo in different mental health projects in Ethiopia, Uganda, Tansania and Sri Lanka.

Dr Katy Robjant is a Clinical Psychologist at the Institute of Psychotrauma. She is also a member of vivo. She has co-facilitated a number of trainings on Narrative Exposure Therapy in collaboration with the research team at the University of Konstanz and vivo. She has recently co-authored a review of the current evidence for Narrative Exposure Therapy. She has provided training in treating PTSD in the UK and in Sri Lanka.

References:
Schauer, M., Neuner, F. and Elbert, T. (2011). Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Short-term Treatment for Traumatic Stress Disorders, Hogrefe & Huber, Göttingen.
Ruf, M. & Schauer, M. (2012). Facing Childhood Trauma within a Cascade Model of Care. Exposure Therapy: New Developments published. Nova Science Publishers (open access).
Robjant, K., & Fazel, M. (2010). The Emerging Evidence for Narrative Exposure Therapy: A Review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 1030-1039.


Workshop 3

Emotional Processing in the Context of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Implications for Persistent Physical Symptoms in General
Trudie Chalder, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London

More than half of people with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have co-morbid depression or anxiety. Recent evidence from a large randomised controlled trial (White et al 2011) and a meta-analysis (Castell et al 2011) confirmed that cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET) are effective treatments for CFS.  However CBT may be more effective for patients with co-morbid depression or anxiety.   Cognitive behavioural models have focused on the role of unhelpful cognitions and behaviours. The role of emotions has not been emphasised. The purpose of this workshop therefore is to examine the evidence for emotion processing difficulties and to explore various treatment strategies that might facilitate emotion processing.  Participants will be expected to role play.

Learning Objectives:

  • To understand the evidence for emotion processing difficulties in CFS
  • To be able to facilitate emotional processing in patients with CFS without activating an irresolvable therapeutic rupture.

Training Modalities:
Didactic teaching
Discussion in pairs and the group
Role plays

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
This workshop will be particularly helpful for clinicians working with complex cases – not just CFS but a variety of disorders which are characterised by persistent symptoms and profound disability.

Trudie Chalder is Professor of Cognitive Behavioural Psychotherapy at King’s College London. She has worked as a clinician and a researcher in the area of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) for adults and children for over 20 years. She developed a cognitive behavioural model and treatment of CFS and the approach has now been evaluated in a number of clinical research trials with positive outcomes. 

Her more recent research interests involve developing cognitive and behavioural models and treatment of symptoms and disability (including sickness absence) associated with chronic illnesses such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Cancer, Diabetes, Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis.

References:
Kempke S, Luyten P, van Houdenhove B, Goossens L, Bekaert P,  van Wambeke P. (2011) Self esteem mediates the reklationship between maladaptive perfectionism and depression in chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinical Rheumatology. DOI: 10.1007/s10067-011-1772-8.
Hambrook, D, Oldershaw, A, Rimes, K. A, Schmidt, U, Tchanturia, K, Treasure, J, Richards, S, & Chalder, T.  (2010) The ability to use and manage emotions in Anorexia Nervosa and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. British Journal of Clinical Psychology. 1-17.
Oldershaw A, Hambrook D, Chalder T, Rimes KA, Tchanturia K, Treasure J, Richards S & Schmidt U. (2011) Emotion Recognition and Emotional Theory of Mind in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Psychology and Health. 1-17. iFirst. 1476-8321 online.


Workshop 4

Behavioural Activation for Depression: Theory, Principles, and Applications
Derek Hopko, University of Tennessee, USA

A number of meta-analyses have supported the efficacy and effectiveness of behavioural interventions for depression (Cuijpers et al., 2007; Ekers et al., 2008; Hopko et al., 2003). This workshop will provide training in the theory, principles, and research supporting behavioural activation, followed by clinical training on how to implement brief behavioural activation treatment for depression (BATD: Lejuez, Hopko, & Hopko, 2001; BATD-R: Lejuez, Hopko, et al., 2011). Applications of BATD with depressed clinical examples as well as complex cases of depression complicated by comorbid physical (e.g., obesity, cancer, HIV infection, diabetes) and psychological (anxiety, substance use, personality disorders) conditions will be presented. BATD will be presented both as a stand-alone treatment and as an adjunctive strategy to be used in conjunction with other interventions.

Learning Objectives:
At the conclusion of this workshop, all participants will:

  • Have a basic knowledge of behavioural models of depression
  • Understand the importance of avoidant behaviour patterns in conceptualizing mental health problems
  • Understand theoretical underpinnings of BATD and exposure based treatments
  • Have skills necessary to implement these behavioural therapies in the context of a variety of mental health care settings.

Training Modalities:
Lecture
Power Point
Interactive
Role Play

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
Behavioural activation represents a time- and cost-efficient intervention for depression that is relatively uncomplicated, empirically validated, and applicable in a range of settings and by practitioners with a range of mental health experience and expertise.

Dr. Hopko is a licensed clinical psychologist and associate professor at the University of Tennessee. He specializes in the areas of depression and anxiety from a health psychology perspective, and his primary research interest is behavioural activation treatment outcome research, particularly applied to depressed cancer patients.

References:
Hopko, D. R., Armento, M. E. A., Robertson, S. M. C., Carvalho, J. P., Ryba, M., Johanson, L., Mullane, C., Gawrysiak, M., Bell, J. L., McNulty, J. K., & Lejuez, C. W. (in press). Behavior Activation and Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed Breast Cancer Patients: Randomized Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Hopko, D. R., & Lejuez, C. W. (2007). A Cancer Patient's Guide to Overcoming Depression and Anxiety: Getting Through Treatment and Getting Back to Your Life. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications Inc.
Lejuez, C. W., Hopko, D. R., Acierno, R., Daughters, S. B., & Pagoto, S. (2011). Ten Year Revision of the Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression: Revised Treatment Manual. Behavior Modification, 35, 111-161.


Workshop 5

An Overview of Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for PTSD
Patricia Resick, National Center for PTSD, VA Boston Healthcare System and Boston University, USA

This workshop will briefly describe the evidence base for CPT, will provide a functional model of PTSD, and then will walk the participants through the 12 sessions of therapy.  Along the way, Dr. Resick will discuss the different formats for the therapy and will provide resources for more training.

Learning Objectives:

  • Participants will learn how to use Socratic dialogue to both uncover and challenge stuck points about traumatic events.
  • Participants will learn the structured format for CPT.
  • Participants will conceptualize PTSD from a functional model rather than a diagnostic framework.

Training Modalities:
Lecture
Videotape
Group activities
Possible role play (depending on time)

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
CPT is a highly effective therapy for PTSD that can be conducted with or without written accounts, and in group as well as individual settings.  The manual is easy to follow and walks both the therapist and client through a progression of worksheets and concepts to resolve PTSD from any type of trauma including multiple or serial traumas.

Dr. Resick is the developer of CPT and has conducted research with a range of traumas with this therapy. She is Past President of both ISTSS and ABCT.   Dr. Resick is currently conducting a study to compare group and individual CPT.

References:
Manual is available as PDF from Patricia.Resick@va.gov
Resick, P.A., Monson, C.M., & Rizvi, S.L. (2007). Posttraumatic stress disorder. In D.H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical Handbook of Psychological Disorders (4th ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Resick, P.A., Galovski, T.E., Uhlmansiek, M.O., Scher, C.D., Clum, G.A., & Young-Xu, Y. (2008). A randomized clinical trial to dismantle components of cognitive processing therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder in female victims of interpersonal violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76, 243-258.
Resick, P. A., Williams, L. F., Suvak, M. K., Monson, C. M., & Gradus, J. L. (in press). Long-term outcomes of cognitive-behavioral treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among female rape survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.


Workshop 6

Emotional Schema Therapy
Robert L. Leahy, American Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Weill-Cornell Medical College, USA

Emotion regulation is a key transdiagnostic process for most forms of psychopathology. Emotion regulation has been implicated in depression, anxiety, eating disorders, and borderline personality disorder. Emotional Schema Therapy is a social-cognitive model of beliefs about emotions and the consequent strategies that follow from these beliefs. For example, depressed individuals believe that their emotions do not make sense, are durable, out of control, different from the emotions of others, are shameful, and cannot be validated.  In this workshop we will review the key principles of Emotional Schema Therapy and how the clinician can assist the patient in developing more adaptive strategies for understanding, evaluating, expressing and tolerating difficult emotions. A wide range of cognitive, behavioural and experiential techniques will be reviewed, focusing on self-validation, elicitation and differentiation of emotion, beliefs about the durability and danger of emotion, challenges to guilt and shame, linking emotions to values, emotional myths, mindfulness and acceptance. In each case, techniques are implemented in order to change problematic schemas and strategies of under-regulation or over-regulation.

Learning Objectives:

  • Identity the patient’s emotional schemas
  • Formulate case conceptualization of the origins and functions of schemas about emotions.
  • Develop treatment strategies that address specific beliefs, evaluations and avoidance of emotional experience.
  • Modify problematic strategies of emotion regulation.

Training Modalities:
Lecture
Discussion
Role-play

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
Fear and shame over emotion is a key factor in patients’ difficulties in engaging in exposure, overcoming experiential avoidance, and accessing deeper meanings in cognitive behavioural therapy. Clinicians can utilize the conceptualizations, strategies and techniques outlined in Emotional Schema Therapy to assist patients in understanding their implicit theories of emotion and how these beliefs support maladaptive coping. In addition, more adaptive beliefs, strategies and coping styles can be implemented that can help in reducing anxiety and depression and engage patients in a more complete emotional life.

Robert L. Leahy (B.A., M.S., Ph.D. Yale University) is the Director of the American Institute for Cognitive Therapy. He has authored and edited 21 books on cognitive therapy and psychological processes and is the Past-President of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy (ABCT), Past-President of the International Association for Cognitive Psychotherapy, Past-President of the Academy of Cognitive Therapy and Clinical Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry at Weill-Cornell Medical School. Dr. Leahy recently received the Aaron T. Beck Award for Outstanding Contributions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy. He has authored several popular audience books, The Worry Cure, Anxiety-Free: Unravel Your Fears before They Unravel You and Beat the Blues Before They Beat You: How to Overcome Depression. His recent clinical books include Emotion Regulation in Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide (with Tirch and Napolitano), Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety Disorders, Second Edition (with Holland and McGinn), and Treatment Plans and Interventions for Bulimia and Binge-Eating Disorder (with Zweig). He is currently completing a self-help book to assist people in coping with the emotional difficulties of unemployment.

References:
Leahy, R.L., Tirch, D. and Napolitano, L. (2011) Emotion Regulation in Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
Leahy, R. L. (2009). Resistance: An emotional schema therapy (EST) approach. In G. Simos, (Ed), Cognitive behaviour therapy: Vol. 2. A guide for the practising clinician (pp. 187-204). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis.
Leahy, R. L. (2009). Emotional schemas and resistance to change in anxiety disorders. In D. Sookman & R. L. Leahy (Eds), Treatment Resistant Anxiety Disorders. New York: Routledge.
Leahy, R. L. (2010). Emotional schema therapy. In J. Herbert and E. Forman (Eds.), Acceptance and mindfulness in cognitive behavior therapy: Understanding and applying the new therapies. New York: Wiley.


Workshop 7

Pain-Related Fear in Chronic Pain: The Application of Exposure in Vivo
Johan Vlaeyen, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium and Maastricht University, Netherlands

There is accumulating evidence that the lowered ability to accomplish tasks of daily living in chronic pain patients is not so much the consequence of pain severity. Instead, catastrophic misinterpretations of pain and associated fear of pain can be more disabling than pain itself. Pain-related fear (fear of movement, physical activity and fear of re-injury) has shown to be associated with impaired physical performance and self-reported disability, and to predict future disability in individuals with acute pain. Inversely, the reduction of pain-related fear (by means of exposure in vivo and behavioral experiments) has shown to increase functional abilities and sometimes to reduce pain severity. The current workshop will briefly summarize the most recent research findings on the role of pain-related fear in chronic pain, and subsequently focus on exposure in vivo as a novel treatment for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain who report substantial pain-related fear.
The exposure in vivo treatment that is outlined in the present workshop consists of four components: Identification of treatment goals, establishment of a fear hierarchy, education about the paradoxical and detrimental effects of safety behaviors, and graded exposure to fearful stimuli following the fear hierarchy. Through exposure, patients are given the opportunity to correct overestimations of the threat signaling value of the previously avoided, conditioned stimuli. In this presentation, the mechanisms underlying exposure treatments and its effectiveness will be reviewed.

Learning Objectives:
After the workshop, participants will be able to:

  • Understand the role of associative learning in the acquisition of pain-related fear, and the role of catastrophic (mis)interpretations of pain therein.
  • Conduct an intake interview, in which information is gathered about “if …then …”propositions, and in which treatment goals are identified.
  • Establish a fear hierarchy using pictorial assessment methods (such as PHODA) that are developed for patients with chronic pain.
  • Conduct a tailored and interactive educational session, in which (subtle) safety behaviors are acknowledged as normal responses to threatening situations, but counterproductive when the level of threat is overestimated.
  • Conduct and evaluate an exposure in vivo session with behavioral experiments based on the fear hierarchy in patients with chronic pain.

Training Modalities:
Instructional learning
Video modelling
Role playing

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
The exposure in vivo treatment is relatively new, and can be applied to a larger group of individuals with chronic somatic complaints.

After his graduation at the Free University of Brussels (Belgium),  Johan Vlaeyen performed his clinical internship at the University of Washington (USA) under the supervision of Samuel Dworkin, and Judith Turner and under the mentorship of Wilbert Fordyce. Johan is now professor Behavioral Medicine at the Universities of Leuven (Belgium) and Maastricht  (Netherlands). His main interests are the development of disability due to somatic complaints in general, and the cognitive and behavioral mechanisms in the transition from acute to chronic pain in particular.
In the context of an affective-motivational approach to pain, his experimental work has focused on the role of the threat value of pain in the engagement of defensive responses such as increased physiological arousal, hypervigilance and escape/avoidance behaviors. He and his team currently are also examining the various ways in fear of pain can both be acquired and subsequently be extinguished. Johan Vlaeyen and his team also have developed exposure-based treatments for fear-reduction and they have utilized randomized controlled trials as well as replicated single-case experimental designs to evaluate the effects of behavioral interventions for patients with chronic pain. From a goal-pursuit framework, Johan and his team are examining the paradoxical situation where negative mood leads to persistence rather than avoidance behavior, and the behavioral responses of individuals who are faced with pain-related goal conflicts.
His scientific work has been supported by the Social Sciences Research Council of theNetherlands (NWO), the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW), Mental Health Foundation (FPG) Netherlands, and the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO), Belgium.
Johan Vlaeyen has published more than 170 peer-reviewed scientific articles in international journals. He also is on the editorial board of the journal Pain, European Journal of Pain, Clinical Journal of Pain, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, Translational Behavioral Medicine, and the Journal of Experimental Psychopathology. He co-edited the book Understanding and treating Fear of Pain (Oxford Univ Press, 2004), is co-editing a book on exposure treatment for pain-related fear (IASP Press). He received the Pain award of the Dutch Chapter of IASP in 1999, and obtained an honorary doctorate at the University of Örebro, Sweden in 2007 for his scientific contributions in the area of pain psychology.

References:
Bailey KM, Carleton RN, Vlaeyen JW, Asmundson GJ. Treatments addressing pain-related fear and anxiety in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a preliminary review. Cogn Behav Ther 2010;39(1):46-63.
den Hollander M, de Jong JR, Volders S, Goossens ME, Smeets RJ, Vlaeyen JW. Fear reduction in patients with chronic pain: a learning theory perspective. Expert Rev Neurother 2010;10(11):1733-1745.
Leeuw M, Goossens ME, van Breukelen GJ, de Jong JR, Heuts PH, Smeets RJ, Koke AJ, Vlaeyen JW. Exposure in vivo versus operant graded activity in chronic low back pain patients: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Pain 2008;138(1):192-207.


Workshop 10

CBT for Psychosis: Basics and Beyond
Alison Brabban, Tees, Esk & Wear Valleys NHS Foundation Trust and IAPT National Advisor for Severe Mental Illness

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for psychosis has come a long way over the last fifteen years.  Although this intervention was only developed in the 1990s, the UK’s NICE guideline now recommends that CBT should be offered to everyone with a diagnosis of schizophrenia.  The workshop aims to cover basic psychological theory of psychosis and to demonstrate how this has influenced the development of the CBT approach; it will also look at how CBT is applied to psychosis in practice.
The workshop will also explore recent developments in psychological understanding of psychosis including links between psychosis, trauma and dissociation and the implications of this for treatment.

Learning Objectives:
By the end of the workshop, participants will have been introduced to:

  • The CBT model of delusions and hallucinations
  • Case formulations of psychosis plus cognitive behavioural interventions for psychotic symptoms.

Those attending should also have a better understanding of recent developments in CBT for Psychosis.

Training Modalities:
Didactic
Group Discussion
DVD

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
The workshop aims to make CBT practitioners more confident when formulating and treating service users presenting with psychotic symptoms.

Alison works a Consultant Clinical Psychologist and Clinical Lead in the EIP service in TEWV NHS Trust, she is also an honorary senior lecturer at Durham University. Much of her work concerns improving implementation of psychological therapies for psychosis.  She has a special interest in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Psychosis and lectures on this topic both nationally and internationally.  She was given a visiting senior lectureship at Harvard University Medical School in 2006 and was also a Beck Scholar.  Having been involved in the development of the NICE Schizophrenia guideline she is now working as the National Advisor for Severe Mental Illness for the IAPT programme (Improving Access to Psychological Therapies). Alison is currently involved in a research trial evaluating the effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for service users refusing antipsychotic medication.

References:
Bentall, R. P. (2003) Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature.  Penguin/Allen Lane.


Workshop 11

Introduction to the Psychological Flexibility Model: An Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Workshop
Kelly G. Wilson, University of Mississippi, USA

Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is one among a group of mindfulness and acceptance oriented cognitive behavioral treatments. Emerging clinical and experimental data, including more than 50 published RCT’s, suggest that ACT produces outcomes that are on par with our most effective traditional CBT interventions—though it may work through different change processes. Several studies, including studies in real world clinics, suggest that ACT can be learned and used effectively by relatively inexperienced therapists. ACT has been shown to be effective for anxiety, depression, psychosis, and substance abuse, as well as for chronic pain, diabetes management and other health concerns. ACT is also well suited to multi-problem and treatment resistant clients. Several trials have been done with high numbers of participants with DSM Axis II diagnoses and also with clients with severe substance problems. These trials have produced solid benefits.
Acceptance, Defusion, and Mindfulness Interventions. In this course, we will look at the ways that ACT works with unhelpful patterns of thinking using acceptance, defusion, and mindfulness interventions. Mindfulness alone has been shown in recent meta-analyses to produce large effects for those diagnosed with anxiety and depression (see, for example, Hoffman, et al., 2010 meta-analysis). ACT uses mindfulness strategies in innovative ways—combining both relatively traditional mindfulness practices with other in-session interventions that involve momentary touching of mindfulness processes within ongoing therapeutic work. ACT’s defusion strategies often provide active and surprising alternative means of working with difficult cognitions.

One thing that has proven out again and again in the psychological literature is that getting people moving is good medicine. Particularly in anxiety and depression, we often see restrictions in activity. Sometimes the restriction plays out in the form of very little activity—as is sometimes the case in depression. Sometimes the restriction plays out in the form of very narrow patterns of activity. In anxiety, individuals may behave in highly routinized patterns (as in OCD). They may not be able to go many places (as in panic and agoraphobia). They may spend so much time with repetitive worry that life gets left behind (as with GAD). They may have such concern with the impressions others might have for them that they avoid many enriching social activities (as in social anxiety disorder and depression).
In ACT behavioral activation occurs inside the values and commitment work. This work seeks to ease clients back into the stream of life, focusing on getting them active in large and small ways in domains of living that are meaningful to them. Because of its roots in the behavioral tradition, ACT involves shaping patterns of activation. We begin where the client is, no matter how restricted, and shape, sometimes starting with the tiniest engagements in lived values. Over time, we help clients to actively author growth in valued domains of living.

Often, clinicians see these patterns of thinking and behaving combine in bewildering ways. The tangle of thinking and behaving can seem impenetrable for both the client and the therapist. The same ACT principles that apply to clients also apply to therapists. Therefore, we will look at the ways that mindfulness and values can help free up the clinician and aid them in their work with even the most difficult clients.

Learning Objectives:

  • Participants will learn when and how to apply ACT mindfulness and acceptance interventions.
  • Participants will learn when and how to apply ACT values and behavioural activation interventions.
  • Participants will learn to combine ACT intervention strategies with some interventions that they already know and use and also how to adapt existing interventions in ACT consistent ways.

Training Modalities:
This course will combine both didactic training and direct practice with both acceptance and mindfulness interventions and at values-based behavioral activation interventions.

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
CBT is in a state of persistent growth and development. Staying abreast of recent scientific findings and their application is a challenge faced by practitioners. This workshop will provide a snapshot of the emerging evidence base along with opportunities to practice interventions based on the latest evidence.

Kelly G. Wilson, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of psychology at the University at Mississippi.  He is former President of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science, former Representative-at-Large of the Society for a Science of Clinical Psychology, and is one of the co-developers of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. He directs the University of Mississippi Center for Contextual Psychology and is the Science Director for the Center for Hometown Science, a public charity engaged in science for the public good. Dr. Wilson has devoted himself to the development and dissemination of ACT and its underlying theory and philosophy for more than 20 years, publishing 40 articles, 34 chapters, and 10 books including Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: The Process and Practice of Mindful Change (2nd ed.), Mindfulness for Two: The Place of Mindfulness in Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, and The Wisdom to Know the Difference: An ACT Workbook for Overcoming Substance Abuse.  He has central interests in the application of behavioral principles to understanding topics such as purpose, meaning, values, therapeutic relationship, and mindfulness.  Dr. Wilson has presented workshops in 24 countries, and has participated as co-investigator in a wide range of research projects in the U.S. and around the world.

References:
Wilson, K. G. & DuFrene, T. (2012). The Wisdom to Know the Difference: An Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Workbook for Overcoming Substance Abuse. New Harbinger: Oakland, CA.


Workshop 12

Allied Forces? How to do Effective and Collaborative CBT with Military Veterans
Martina Mueller, Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre  

This interactive and experiential workshop aims to provide practical ideas for understanding and working with military veterans who present with a range of common mental health problems. The workshop will address the special characteristics and culture of this population and how to adapt CBT accordingly, with an emphasis on forming a strong collaborative alliance and working with co-morbidity. Participants will learn how to develop an individual case formulation to make sense of, and develop a treatment plan for, depression and anxiety in the context of substance misuse, anger and risk.
Clinical material will be used throughout to illustrate teaching points. A special feature of the workshop will be the opportunity to hear from veterans about their experience of treatment and their insights about what it is like to have CBT.

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the special characteristics of this population
  • Understand how  we can develop and maintain  an effective and collaborative working alliance
  • Design tailored intervention to target key maintaining cycles identified by a well-developed case formulation
  • To hone skills in identifying and working effectively with risk
  • To harness resilience and functional coping throughout treatment

Training Modalities
Didactic
Role-play
Demonstrations
Small group exercises

Implications for the science and practice of CBT

  • Improve the identification and understanding of common mental health problems in veterans
  • To enhance use of effective CBT through collaborative working with veterans to reduce risk and  facilitate recovery.

Martina Mueller is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist works with the Oxford Cognitive Therapy Centre where she is the Course Director of the Post Graduate Certificate in CBT for Psychological Trauma run in collaboration with the University of Oxford.  She leads the trauma service for Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust. She is widely respected for her innovative clinical work and specializes in the assessment and treatment of complex reactions following adult trauma. She has has extensive experience of working with veterans and has a special interest in the treatment of multiple and prolonged trauma following occupational trauma.  Martina is one of the editors of the Oxford Guide to Behavioural Experiments in Cognitive Therapy, and is lead editor of the ’Oxford Guide to Surviving as a CBT Therapist’ published by OUP in 2010.


Workshop 13

A Cognitive Approach to the Treatment of OCD: Beyond Exposure and Response Prevention
Adam Radomsky, Concordia University, Canada

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a heterogeneous disorder; common symptoms include washing and checking behaviour, as well as primary obsessions (i.e. repugnant, unwanted, intrusive thoughts, images and impulses). There has been a surge in recent research on each of these forms of OCD, with publications often based solidly in a variety of cognitively-based models. Although these models differ to some extent in their explanation of obsessional and compulsive phenomena, they share a number of important features that are consistent with broad cognitive principles. These have enabled a new, primarily cognitive conceptualization of contamination-based OCD, the assessment and treatment of which will be a main focus of this workshop. We will begin with a review of the theoretical and empirical work conducted on the psychopathology and treatment of different manifestations of OCD. The workshop will continue with practical instruction on the cognitive-behavioural assessment and treatment of a variety of forms of the disorder, with particular emphasis on obsessions, compulsive checking, and contamination-based OCD (mental contamination). Attendees will learn about cognitive case formulation, the importance of ongoing assessment, and specific therapeutic interventions, all following from cognitive-behavioural models of OCD. Although OCD remains a serious and often debilitating disorder, our ability to substantially improve the lives of those suffering from the problem has dramatically increased in recent years. This workshop will capitalize on these recent improvements through the emphasis of new cognitive and behavioural treatment strategies for this challenging disorder.

Learning Objectives

  • To learn about theoretical and background research related to obsessions and compulsions in OCD.
  • To learn cognitive case conceptualization skills for use in planning the treatment of a number of forms of OCD.
  • To acquire treatment skills to be employed with clients suffering from a variety of forms of obsessional thinking and/or compulsive behaviour in OCD.

Training Modalities
The workshop will include experiential, didactic, and group exercises.  There will be opportunities for role play and/or the discussion of your own cases.

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
This workshop will provide some of the latest evidence-based CBT options and techniques for the treatment of a range of obsessions and compulsions from a cognitive perspective.  Attendees should leave the workshop with some new ideas about how to work with their clients struggling with OCD.

Dr. Radomsky is the Founding President of the Canadian Association of Cognitive Behavioural Therapies and Associate Professor of Psychology at Concordia University. His research investigates cognitive, behavioural and emotional aspects of OCD and a number of other anxiety disorders. He has received several national and international awards for his work including being named a Beck Institute Scholar and receiving a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) New Investigator Award. In his clinical practice he specializes in Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) for adult anxiety disorders.

References
Rachman, S. (1998). A cognitive theory of obsessions: Elaborations. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 385-401.
Radomsky, A.S., Shafran, R., Coughtrey, A.E., & Rachman, S. (2010). Cognitive-behavior therapy for compulsive checking in OCD. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 17, 119-131.


Workshop 14

Update on CBT for Personality Disorder - CBTpd
Kate Davidson, University of Glasgow and NHS GGC, and Sean Harper, NHS Lothian

Several randomised controlled clinical trials of brief therapies such as MACT have been shown to be effective in the treatment of borderline and antisocial personality disorders, and those with complex comorbidity. Importantly, therapeutic gains are maintained at longer term follow up.  The workshop will provide participants with up to date knowledge of the field and how the CBTpd model applies in the NHS and other settings, such as prisons.  Participants will learn about the importance of developing a developmental CBT formulation in the form of a narrative.

Learning Objectives

  • Update knowledge of personality disorders.
  • Develop better understanding and practice of utilising a developmental perspective when working with complex comorbidity and personality disorder.

Training Modalities
Didactic
Observational
Written exercise

Implications for the science and practice of CBT

  • Being able to work more effectively with clients who have personality disorders.
  • Increased knowledge of how personality disorder develops.

Kate Davidson is Director of Glasgow Institute of Psychosocial Interventions and South of Scotland CBT Course. She is Editor of ‘Personality and Mental Health’. Her research has concentrated on the treatment of suicidal behaviour and antisocial and borderline personality disorder. Dr Sean Harper is a consultant clinical psychologist, senior Tutor on the South of Scotland CBT course.

References
Davidson K (2011) Editorial. Changing the classification of personality disorders –an ICD11 proposal that goes too far? Personality and Mental Health, 5, 243-245.
Taylor LM, Oldershaw A, Richards C, Davidson K, Schmidt U, Simic M. (2011) Development and Pilot Evaluation of a Manualized Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment Package for Adolescent Self-Harm. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 39, 619-626.
Davidson K, Tyrer P, Norrie J, Palmer S, Tyrer H (2010)  Cognitive therapy v. usual treatment for borderline personality disorder: prospective 6-year follow-up.  British Journal of Psychiatry, 197 (6), 456-462.


Workshop 15

CBT for People with Cancer
Stirling Moorey, Sout London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust

Dr Moorey has conducted 3 RCTs in cancer for early and late stage disease. The workshop will present clinical methods develoed from these trials and also updated interventions for working with common physical symptoms based on clinical trials and reviews of the literature.

Learning Objectives

  • To understand how people's reactions to cancer can be conceptualised within a developmental and maintenance CBT model of adjustment
  • To understand the current status of CBT for people with cancer
  • To use evidence based approaches to common emotional and physical symptoms in cancer

Training Modalities
Didactic
Demonstration role-play
Experiential exercises
Skills based role-play

Implications for the science and practice of CBT

  • Increased confidence in understanding life threatening and long term conditions
  • Increased knowledge and skills in dealing with people with emotional reactions to cancer
  • These techniques can be generalsied to work with patients facing adversity from a range of life circumstances which are not confined to serious illnesss

There is a growing body of evidence for the use of CBT with life-limiting conditions. This workshop will present the model of therapy developed by Stirling Moorey and Steven Greer and will focus on techniques for working with adjustment, anxiety and depression as well as applications of CBT to common physical symptoms encountered in cancer such as pain, insomnia, fatigue and nausea.

References
Moorey S & Greer S "The Oxford Guide to CBT for People with Cancer" Oxford University Press 2011
Thsi contains clinical information and recent reviews of the literature.


Workshop 16

‘A Picture is worth a Thousand Words’: Developing Imagery Techniques in Cognitive Therapy.
Lusia Stopa, University of Southampton

The importance of imagery was recognised from the beginning in cognitive therapy; however, early views of imagery tended to conceptualise them as functional equivalents of thoughts. As a result, there was an assumption that images could be tackled with the same techniques that were used for verbal thoughts, such as thought challenging. In the early days of cognitive therapy, there was little or no attempt to focus on the unique qualities of images or to develop specific interventions for them. Work in the field of personality disorders and complex cases recognised the importance of imagery, which was incorporated directly into therapies such as schema-focused therapy.
More recently, there has been growing awareness and understanding of the role that images play in creating and maintaining all different types of psychopathology and this has encouraged the development of a range of imagery techniques that can be integrated within cognitive therapy for Axis I disorders such as anxiety and depression, as well as their use in the treatment of more complex cases. This workshop will focus on incorporating imagery work into treatment protocols of Axis I disorders.
Learning Objectives

  • To examine the role of imagery across a range of clinical disorders
  • To introduce a number of different imagery techniques that can be used in assessment and in treatment
  • To demonstrate and practise using imagery techniques. The workshop will concentrate particularly on imagery rescripting and on techniques for accessing positive views of self and how to use these self-images in therapy.

Please note- I will not be covering imaginal reliving in any depth and recommend that you enrol for a specific PTSD workshop if this is a skill that you wish to learn.

Training Modalities
Instruction
Modelling
Practice including role-play

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
The workshop is aimed at Intermediate level cognitive therapists who have experience of treating Axis I disorders and would like to learn how to use a variety of imagery techniques in treatment.
Lusia Stopa is Director of the Cognitive Therapy Programmes in the School of Psychology and a Senior Lecturer in Clinical Psychology at the University of Southampton. She holds an honorary Consultant Clinical Psychologist post with Solent NHS Trust and has been researching, teaching, and practising cognitive therapy for over twenty years.

Her research focuses on the role of imagery in anxiety disorders and she has published widely on imagery in social phobia. Her book, “Imagery and the threatened self: Perspectives on the self and mental imagery in cognitive therapy”, has brought together work on imagery and on the self. She is also researching how imagery rescripting works and has recently edited a special issue of Cognitive Behaviour Practice on imagery rescripting.

Her current clinical practice concentrates on the anxiety disorders and in particular on social phobia and PTSD, and imagery plays a prominent part in both the maintenance and the treatment of these disorders.

References
Stopa, L. [Ed]. (2009). Imagery and the threatened self: perspectives on mental imagery and the self in cognitive therapy. London: Routledge.
Stopa, L. [Ed] (2011). Special series: Imagery rescripting across disorders: A practical guide.  Cognitive Behaviour Practice, 18, 421-588.
Hackmann, A., Bennett-Levy, J., & Holmes, E.A. (2011). Oxford Guide to imagery in cognitive therapy. Oxford: OUP.


Workshop 17

Why Behaving Well is not Beyond Belief: Identifying and Using Behavioural Change and Behavioural Experiments in Effective CBT for Anxiety and Related Problems
Paul Salkovskis, University of Bath

CBT approaches to the understanding and treatment of anxiety have now fully integrated an understanding of the role of anxiety related behaviours with cognitive models of anxiety and other maintaining factors. Such behaviours can be both helpful and unhelpful for people suffering from anxiety disorders in ways which have previously been poorly understood. In this workshop, “safety behaviours” are considered as being best understood from the point of view of the person’s intention rather than their topography (i.e. their superficial appearance and links to the experience of anxiety). In particular, Paul will identify the important distinction between counter-productive “Safety Seeking Behaviours” (SSBs) and therapeutically helpful “Approach Supporting Behaviours” (ASBs) in the context of assessment and treatment of a range of anxiety disorders. The transdiagnostic nature of such concepts and the way they integrate with the perception of threat will be illustrated with clinical examples. The role of, preparation for and practical implementation of behavioural experiments in ways most likely to help people suffering from anxiety to understand and counteract the effect of SSBs will be described and illustrated, including behavioural experiments which incorporate both exposure and non-exposure related strategies. Ways in which ASBs can be deployed to reduce or even eliminate excessive discomfort in exposure type strategies will be described and demonstrated. The workshop is intended to provide intermediate and advanced clinicians a better understand of the role of behaviours in assessment and effective treatments, including intensive treatment, taking a cognitive perspective.

Learning Objectives

  • Understanding how to assess the role of behaviour in generating and maintaining anxiety
  • Understanding and applying the integration of cognitive and behavioural approaches to anxiety
  • Clarifying the distinction between Safety Seeking Behaviours and Approach Supporting Behaviours.
  • Understanding and being able to design behavioural experiments whilst minimising client distress
  • To be able to use behavioural support in overcoming anxiety both in the office and in vivo

Training Modalities
The workshop will be interactive and include both experiential (role play) and didactic teaching and DVDs of clinical sessions

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
The workshop will focus on the interplay between discussion strategies and behavioural experiments, identifying their common features. This understanding will be used to help participants to conduct therapy including confrontation of threatening situations in ways which minimise distress for the client and speed up the process of treatment.
Paul Salkovskis is Professor of Clinical Psychology and Applied Science and the Programme Director on the new Clinical Psychology Doctorate Programme at University of Bath since September 2010, and prior to this was based at the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College, London since October 2000 and Clinical Director at the Centre for Anxiety Disorders and Trauma, South London and Maudsley NHS Trust from the same date. His research interests have focused on the importance of distorted thinking in the understanding of emotional disorders, and on ways of modifying such negative thinking in order to change problematic behaviours and control negative emotional reactions.

References
Salkovskis, P.M. (1996). The cognitive approach to anxiety: threat beliefs, safety seeking behaviour and the special case of health anxiety and obsessions. In P. Salkovskis (Ed), Frontiers of Cognitive Therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
Salkovskis, P.M., Clark, D.M., Hackmann, A., Wells, A. & Gelder, M.G. (1999).  An experimental investigation of the role of safety-seeking behaviours in the maintenance of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 559-574.
Salkovskis, P.M. (1996).  Avoidance behaviour is motivated by threat beliefs: a possible resolution of the cognitive-behaviour debate.  In P. Salkovskis (Ed), Trends in Cognitive and Behavioural Therapies.  Chichester:  W.J. Wiley & Sons.


Workshop 18

Body Image Disturbance in the Eating Disorders: Cognitive-Behavioural Approaches
Glenn Waller, Vincent Square Eating Disorders Service, CNWL NHS Foundation Trust, London, and Eating Disorders Section, Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London

Disturbed body image is a feature in most cases of eating disorders, and is a powerful maintaining factor. The underlying cognitions, emotions and behaviours tend to change later in the course of treatment (e.g., following normalisation of weight and other eating-disordered behaviours). If it is not reduced during treatment, it is a powerful factor behind relapse. While negative body image is corrected in the general course of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for the eating disorders in some cases, it is an element of psychopathology that needs to be addressed directly in many cases, particularly in the later part of that therapy.
This workshop specifically outlines and demonstrates the skills needed to treat body image disturbance at this stage in CBT for the eating disorders. Those skills include cognitive restructuring, surveys, behavioural experiments, mindfulness, and exposure with response prevention. Special consideration will be given to such work with particular sub-groups of patients (younger cases, abuse victims, overweight patients). The skills will be explained in context of clear formulations of the maintenance of the eating disorders.
Learning Objectives

  • Understand the role of body image in the formulation of the eating disorders
  • Understand the role of body image as a risk factor for relapse
  • Learn to use mirror-image exposure for body image
  • Develop skills of cognitive restructuring for disturbed body image
  • Use behavioural experiments to address safety behaviours that maintain negative body image 
  • Learn to develop and use body image surveys to address ‘mind reading’
  • Consider when to use mindfulness in body image work

Training Modalities
Didactic
Case examples
Participatory exercises

Implications for the science and practice of CBT
This workshop should give clinicians the skills needed to normalise body image, to the point where the risk of relapse is reduced and the individual can function in their social context.

Glenn Waller, DPhil, is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist with Vincent Square Eating Disorders Service, CNWL NHS Foundation Trust, where he heads the psychological therapies team. He is also Visiting Professor of Psychology at King's College London. He has worked with the eating disorders for over 20 years, using a primarily cognitive-behavioural approach. He has published widely in the field, with including being lead author on two books on cognitive-behavioural approaches to the eating disorders. He is Associate Editor of the International Journal of Eating Disorders, and is a member of the editorial boards of other journals, including Behaviour Research and Therapy.

References
Fairburn, C. G. (2008). Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders. New York, NY: Guilford.
Waller, G., Cordery, H., Corstorphine, E., Hinrichsen, H., Lawson, R., Mountford, V., & Russell, K. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for the eating disorders: A comprehensive treatment guide. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.